Country

Mozambique

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Mozambique.

Current Climate Climatology

This page presents Mozambique's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit.  Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for  specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.

Observed, historical data is produced by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia. Data is presented at a 0.5º x 0.5º (50km x 50km) resolution.

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Climate Data Historical

Mozambique has a tropical to sub-tropical climate. Rainfall distribution in Mozambique follows a north-south gradient, with more rainfall along the coast, where the annual average varies between 800 and 1200 mm. The inland high-altitude areas in the north and central regions receive approximately 1000 mm, whereas the inland central and south areas receive about 600 mm of rainfall. The south of Mozambique is generally drier with an average rainfall lower than 800 mm, decreasing to as low as 300 mm. Temperatures are warmest near the coast, compared with colder temperatures higher inland. Typical average temperatures at the coast are 25°C - 27°C in the summer and 20°C - 23°C in winter. The average temperatures in the southern region are 24°C - 26°C in summer and 20°C - 22°C in winter.

Temperature

  • Since 1960, mean temperatures across the country rose by an average of 0.9°C (0.15-0.16°C per decade), especially during the rainy season.
  • The number of hot days increased by 25 in the last 40 years, and much of this has occurred during the southern hemisphere autumn.

Precipitation

  • Since 1960, mean rainfall decreased by an average of 2.5 mm per month (3.1%) per decade.
  • Spatial manifestations are varied, with increased rainfall over the northern regions, highly variable conditions in the central regions, and persistent drought periods coupled with episodic floods in the south.
  • The proportion of days with heavy rainfall events have increased by 2.6% per decade or an estimated 25 days per year.
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