Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting France.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for France's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of France's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

France is located between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, between latitudes 41°N and 51°N. With a surface area of 550,000 km2, France is the largest of the European Union countries. In 2017, the population of France was 67 million, including 64.9 million in mainland France. The French economy is mainly a service economy with the tertiary sector accounting for 76.7% of the labor force, while the primary sector (such as agriculture, fishing) accounts for only 2.8%. Nearly 60% of France’s mainland surface area is used for agriculture, 34% is forests and natural or semi-natural environments, and just under 6% corresponds to urbanized land. France is a major livestock farming country in the European Union with the highest number of bovine livestock. Overall, mainland France enjoys a temperate climate. However, the regions experience climates that vary according to their latitude, altitude and their proximity to the sea and to the three major mountain ranges (Pyrenees, Massif Central, Alps). There are five main types of climates in mainland France: oceanic, altered oceanic, semi-continental, mountainous, and Mediterranean (Seventh National Communication, 2017). France submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as an EU Member State in 2015.