Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Botswana's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Botswana's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

The Republic of Botswana is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, located between 20.0°–29.4° E and 17.8°–26.8° S. The country has a total land area of 600,370 square kilometers and shares borders with Zambia and Zimbabwe to the northeast, Namibia to the north and west and South Africa to the south and southwest. Botswana has a distinct geography, which is dominated by the Kalahari Desert (a sand-filled basin averaging 1,100 meters (m) above sea level), the Okavango swamps covering over 18,000 square kilometers, and the Zambezi River. Botswana’s climate is arid to semi-arid with warm winters and hot summers and highly erratic rainfall, most of which occurs from October to April. Botswana has a population of 2.35 million people (2020). 

Botswana submitted its Nationally-Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC in 2016, in support of the country’s efforts to realize its development goals and increase its resilience to climate change, described in the National Adaptation Plan Framework (2020). The country published its Third National Communication to the UNFCCC in 2019. Botswana remains committed to developing a long term, low carbon development strategy and supporting necessary mitigation and adaptation activities in order to reduce its vulnerability to climate change, and protecting  the livelihoods of its population. Key focus is on the sustainability of the environment, water resources, sustainable land management, agriculture, and health sectors.