Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Somalia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Somalia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Somalia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Located in the Horn of Africa, Somalia is one of the poorest and most fragile countries in the world. Poverty in Somalia and Somaliland is severe, with only 26 percent of 15- to 55-year-olds in rural Somaliland and 33 percent in urban Somaliland are employed (wage or self-employment). Climate plays a key role for Somalia’s economy and livelihoods as its economy is predominated by agricultural activities. Historical climate data indicates that 2017 is the fourth consecutive year of below-average harvests for the Somali agriculture sector. The agricultural crop production is – like in most Sub-Saharan countries – mainly rain-fed and hence, depends on a stable level of precipitation and temperature. With increasing levels of food prices, purchasing power continues to decrease at the same time. According to Somalia’s National Adaptation Program of Action, droughts and floods pose the most severe hazards to the country. For the water sector, declining ground water levels drive up water prices and increase the likelihood of a conflict over water.

Somalia developed their National Adaptation Program of Action or NAPA in 2013, in consultation with the United Nations Development Programme. It identifies three major programmatic areas: (1) Sustainable Land Management to protect forests and improve land use; (2) Water Resources Management to develop national water resources management plan, and (3) Disaster Management to strengthen disaster management agency. Given low mitigation level, the NAPA serves as a policy guideline for climate change. Somalia ratified the Paris Agreement on April 22, 2016. Its Nationally Determined Contribution was prepared by the Ministry of Environment.