Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Somalia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Somalia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Somalia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Somalia is located in the horn of Africa and has a total land area of 647,540 km2. The country has over 3,025 km of coastline, the longest in the mainland Africa and the Middle East. Somalia is bordered by Kenya, Ethiopia, and Djibouti to the west. Somalia has a population of over 15.8 million (2020) people, of which 60% live in rural areas as nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralists. Climate plays a key role for Somalia’s economy and livelihoods as its economy is predominated by agricultural activities, which accounted for about 65% of the GDP and employment in 2017. In Somalia, climate change impacts from droughts and floods pose the most severe hazards to the country. For the water sector, declining ground water levels drive up water prices and increase the likelihood of a conflict over water.