Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Peru's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Peru's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Peru is located in the center of South America sharing borders with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Chile. It has a total area of 1,285,215.6 km2. The coast, a narrow desert strip, borders the Pacific Ocean, covering 11.7% of the territory where 54.6% of the total estimated 33 million (2020) people live. Peru has a relatively young population with more than half being under 30 years. Peru’s geography is incredibly diverse, with the massive Andean cordillera dividing its surface into three natural regions: the Costa (arid coastal plains, where approximately 55% of the population resides) to the west; the Sierra (highlands, with 32% of the population); and the Selva (the lush Amazon rainforest, with 13% of the population) to the east. The country’s latitude, its mountain ranges, sharp variations in topography, and the Humboldt (ocean) Current create dramatically different climatic zones. Its geographic diversity exposes Peru to natural hazards—it has seven of the nine possible characteristics that make a country vulnerable to natural disasters: earthquakes, flash flooding, landslides, and volcanic activity, among them. Peru is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, especially from natural disasters, which include earthquakes, flash flooding, landslides, and volcanic activity, among others, especially with majority of its population residing along the coast.