Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Kuwait.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Kuwait's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Kuwait's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Kuwait has a hyper arid desert climate that is highly variable with recurrent extremes. Much of Kuwait is characterized by loose, mobile surface sediments that have very low levels of nutrients and organic matter. While rich in terrestrial and marine biodiversity, these systems are fragile and highly vulnerable to climate change. 

The population of Kuwait was over 3 million in 2020 and with over 98% of the population currently living in urban areas which are mostly located along the coast since the discovery of oil in the late 1930s. A modern country with an extensive, modern and well-maintained network of road infrastructure, Kuwait also has a modern healthcare system and a healthy populace; recent trends show a decrease in the incidence of communicable diseases and an increase in life expectancy in the country. Kuwait’s economy is fairly small, comparatively rich, semi-open and highly dependent on oil exports. Kuwait is one of the world’s leading oil producers, possessing the world’s fifth largest crude oil reserves in the world and has one of the wealthiest economies in the Arabian Gulf region. Throughout its modern history, Kuwait has heavily relied on food imports because only a negligible fraction of food demand can be met by local agriculture.

Kuwait is also one of the world’s most water-stressed countries, with the lowest per capita renewable internal freshwater availability of any country, requiring extensive seawater desalination to meet the water demand. Kuwait seeks to move to low-carbon economic system and adaptable to climate change to enhance and protect its natural resources and achieve sustainable development standard. The country is working to adapt with the impacts of climate change from higher temperatures, lack of rainfall, sea level rise, lack of water resources and the increasing severity of dust storms.