Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Vietnam.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Vietnam's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Vietnam's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Vietnam is a Southeast Asian nation with an extensive coastline and diverse but generally warm climate including temperate and tropical regions. In 2019 Vietnam’s population was estimated at 96.4 million, approximately one third of whom live in the metropolitan areas of its two mega-cities, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. The relative contribution of agriculture, forestry, and fishing to the country’s economy has declined in recent years due to the rapid growth of the industry and service sectors; as of 2017 the agricultural sector contributed 15.3% of gross domestic product, this is somewhat mismatched against an employment contribution of around 40.3% of the country’s labor force. 

Rice production has a particularly vital role for the country in terms of food security, rural employment and foreign exchange, employing two-thirds of the rural labor force and positioning Vietnam as consistently one of the world’s largest rice exporters. Vietnam’s long coastline, geographic location, and diverse topography and climates contribute to its being one of the most hazard-prone countries of Asia and the Pacific Region. 

Given that a high proportion of the country’s population and economic assets (including irrigated agriculture) are located in coastal lowlands and deltas and rural areas face issues of poverty and deprivation, Vietnam has been ranked among the five countries likely to be most affected by climate change. It has been estimated that climate change will reduce national income by up to 3.5% by 2050.