Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting India.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for India's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of India's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

India is the seventh largest country in the world, and the second most populous, home to 1.3 billion people in 2017. Lying between the Himalayas and the Indian Ocean, India contains diverse ecosystems and cultures. Its geography includes mountainous terrain, northern plains, peninsular plateau, coastal plains, island groups, and deserts, with many different climates, great biodiversity, and rich natural resources. Around 47% of the population of India is dependent on agriculture as their main livelihood, though its contribution to GDP is declining, constituting 15% in 2016. The services sector accounts for 61% of GDP, while industry contributes 23%. Key issues confronting the Indian government include ensuring equitable and environmentally sustainable growth, fostering faster creation of good quality jobs, addressing environmental stressors such as land degradation, poor air quality and unsustainable groundwater use, as well as strengthening implementation of flagship government programs. As of 2014-2016 an estimated 14.5% of the population remained undernourished.

Climate change is a major challenge for developing nations like India, threatening to enhance risks already elevated by high levels of social vulnerability and climate variability. In its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), India sets out plans for a major transformation of its economy, committing to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33% from 2005 levels by 2030. Furthermore, the nation aims to enhance investments in development programmes in sectors vulnerable to climate change, particularly agriculture, water resources, coastal economies, and health.