Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting India.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for India's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of India's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

India is the seventh largest country in the world, and the second most populous, home to over 1.36 billion people. Lying between the Himalayas and the Indian Ocean, India contains diverse ecosystems and cultures. Its geography includes mountainous terrain, northern plains, peninsular plateau, coastal plains, island groups, and deserts, with many different climates, great biodiversity, and rich natural resources. Approximately 43% of the population is dependent on agriculture as their main employment source, however, its contribution to GDP is declining, with the agriculture sector constituting 16% in 2019. The services sector accounts for 49.4% of GDP, while industry contributes 24.8%. Key issues confronting the Indian government include ensuring equi and environmentally sustainable growth, fostering faster creation of good quality jobs, addressing environmental stressors such as land degradation, poor air quality and unsustainable groundwater use, as well as strengthening implementation of flagship government programs. As of 2018 an estimated 14% of the population was undernourished.

Climate change is a major challenge for developing nations like India, threatening to enhance risks already elevated by high levels of social vulnerability and climate variability. Through its 2016 Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), India is committed to achieving by 2030: a reduction in the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33% - 35% below the 2005 levels; the share of renewables in power generation at 40% contingent on technology transfer and availability of finance; and an additional cumulative carbon sink of 2.5 – 3.0 GtCO2e by 2030 with increased afforestation and tree cover. Other commitments are to better adapt to climate change by enhancing investments in development programs in sectors vulnerable to climate change, particularly agriculture, water resources, Himalayan region, coastal regions, health and disaster management. Furthermore, the nation aims to enhance investments in development programs in sectors vulnerable to climate change, particularly agriculture, water resources, coastal economies, and health.