Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Spain.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Spain's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Spain's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Spain is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Its territory of 506,023 km2 makes it the second largest country of the European Union. Spain’s territory includes two archipelagos: the Canary Islands, off the coast of Africa and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Other small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of the Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar, to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay, and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. In 2017, Spain’s population reached 46,528,966, of which about 80% live in urban areas. From 2015 to 2017, Spain’s economy had positive growth rates, with GDP reaching US $1.3 trillion in 2017.  Spain has a service-based economy with the services accounting for over 65% of GDP. In relative terms, industry and construction they occupy the second and third positions, while agriculture contributes to about 2.5% GDP. Given its orography and geographical location, the Iberian Peninsula experiences temperatures that exceed 45°C and minimums that reach values lower than -20°C. Average annual temperatures oscillate between values lower than 2.5°C, and values higher than 18°C. Spain submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as an EU Member State in 2015 and its Seventh National Communication in 2017.