Country

Spain

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Spain.

Country Context

Spain is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Its territory of 506,023 km2 makes it the second largest country of the European Union. Spain’s territory includes two archipelagos: the Canary Islands, off the coast of Africa and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Other small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of the Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar, to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay, and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. In 2017, Spain’s population reached 46,528,966, of which about 80% live in urban areas. From 2015 to 2017, Spain’s economy had positive growth rates, with GDP reaching US $1.3 trillion in 2017.  Spain has a service-based economy with the services accounting for over 65% of GDP. In relative terms, industry and construction they occupy the second and third positions, while agriculture contributes to about 2.5% GDP. Given its orography and geographical location, the Iberian Peninsula experiences temperatures that exceed 45°C and minimums that reach values lower than -20°C. Average annual temperatures oscillate between values lower than 2.5°C, and values higher than 18°C. Spain submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as an EU Member State in 2015 and its Seventh National Communication in 2017.

Country level data at a glance

Climate Data

Historical Trends

The section provides access to historical climate datasets for both temperature and precipitation from 1900 to 2016.

Projected Trends

The section provides access to future climate datasets for both temperature and precipitation and their statistical derivatives for various timeframes and emission scenarios from 2020 to 2099.

The section provides access to future climate datasets for both temperature and precipitation and their statistical derivatives for various timeframes and emission scenarios from 2020 to 2099.

Climate by Sector

This section contains information from multiple climate indicators and indices relevant for key economic sectors. Simple narratives can help you interpret and extract summaries of potential climate change impacts at the sector level.

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Vulnerability

This section allows you to explore the susceptibility of livelihoods and natural systems to impacts from climate variability and change and facilitate the exploration of socioeconomic and development data and its relationships with natural hazards vulnerable areas.

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Impacts

This section allows you to explore the climate information from multiple climate indicators and present them with simple, embedded interpretation for an informative, high-level summary of the potential for future climate change impacts on key socioeconomic sectors.

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Adaptation

This section helps you grasp key national adaptation policies and reports, explore options for key sectors, and understand current adaptation gaps and needs for enhanced climate smart planning.

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