Country

Switzerland

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Switzerland.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Switzerland's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Switzerland's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Switzerland, located in the center of Europe, extends from 45°49’ to 47°48’ N and from 5°57’ to 10°30’ E. It covers an area of 41,285 km2, comprising 31.3% forests and grove, 35.9% utilized agricultural area, 7.5% built-up and 25.3% unproductive surface. While the built-up area is relatively small, it increased by 23% between 1985 and 2009, and continues to expand mainly at the expense of utilized agricultural area. At the end of 2015, Switzerland had a population of 8,327,126, of which 78% live in urban areas. Switzerland has a prosperous open economy dominated by the services sector which contribute to 77% GDP. The Alps, running from south-west to east, act as a major climatic divide. Since the beginning of temperature measurements in Switzerland in 1864, the average annual temperature has risen by 1.75°C. In the Alps, the glaciers have been retreating at an accelerating pace since 1980. Since 1999 alone, glaciers have lost over 12% of their volume. If the warming continues, only a fraction of the current glacier cover will be left by the end of the 21st century with large impacts on the seasonal availability of water for drinking water, agriculture and power generation (Seventh National Communication, 2017). Switzerland submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in 2015, in which it commits to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 50% in 2030 compared to 1990 levels.