Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Brazil.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Brazil's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Brazil's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Brazil is the largest country in South America. It has an extensive coastline to the east, covering over 7,491 kilometers (km), along the Atlantic Ocean and a land area of 8,510,295 km2, making it the fifth largest country in the world. The country shares a border with Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana in the northwest; Peru, and Bolivia in the west; and Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay in the southwest. The nation’s territory also includes several oceanic islands: Fernando de Noronha, Abrolhos and Trindade. In addition to harboring over a third of the Earth’s tropical forests, Brazil is home to an extremely rich flora and fauna and a rich diversity of ecosystems including, but not limited to, the Amazon forest, the Cerrado (central plateaus, covering 21% land area), the Atlantic Forest (forests which extend along the Atlantic coastline), the Caatinga (desert shrubland in the northeast) and the Pantanal wetlands(encompasses the world’s largest wetland area, located along the western border). Brazil’s diverse and abundant natural resources, ecosystems, and significant biodiversity are world renowned. The national territory comprises six unique biomes: Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, Pampa, and Pantanal. The Amazon and Atlantic Forest are home to humid and seasonal forests and significant biodiversity. The Caatinga is characterized by semi-arid climate and arid plant life. Cerrado houses three major watersheds of South America, which makes it the richest savannah in biodiversity worldwide

Brazil has a population of 211 million people (2019) with an annual population growth rate of 0.8% (2019). The population projected to reach 223.8 million people by 2030 and 228.9 million by 2050. An estimated 86% of the country’s population resides in urban areas, and this is expected to increase to 92% by 2050. The country’s economy is driven primarily by industry, its services sector and agriculture. Brazil is the largest net-exporter of agricultural commodities, with the agri-business sector contributing approximately 20% of the country’s GDP and over 30% of all domestic employment. Brazil is one of the world’s leading exporters of soybeans, beef, coffee, and automobiles. 

Brazil adopted the Paris Agreement and submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the UNFCCC in 2016 and its Updated NDC in 2020 in support of its adaptation commitments and continued economic and social development agendas. Through its NDC, Brazil has committed to reduce its GHG emissions by 37% below 2005 levels, by 2025. Brazil has also committed to address climate change impacts to the country’s sectors environment, forestry, agricultural and livestock, energy, and health sectors. Brazil submitted its Fourth National Communication to the UNFCCC in 2020.