Bosnia and Herzegovina

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Bosnia and Herzegovina's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Bosnia and Herzegovina's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a lower middle-income country located in the Western Balkans of Central Europe. The country has a total surface area of 51,209 square kilometers (km), which is comprised of 51,197 km² of land and 12.2 km² of sea. BiH shares boarders with Croatia (931 km), Serbia (375 km) and Montenegro (249 km) and a coastline along the Adriatic Sea (25.5 km). Its location on the Balkan Peninsula places it within the Adriatic and Black sea basins. The country’s topography is largely hilly to mountainous with an average altitude of 500 meters (m) and a maximum altitude of 2,400 m. The country’s land areas is made up of 5% lowlands, 24% hills, 42% mountains, and 29% karstic regions (soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, gypsum, characterized by underground drainage and sinkholes).  BiH also has a large network of transboundary rivers, including tributaries of Drina, Neretva, Una, Korana and Glina, and rivers on its territorial boarders such as the Sava, Una and Drina. BiH has a population 3.3 million people (2020).

BiH submitted its Nationally-Determined Contribution (NDC) to the UNFCCC in 2016 in support of its commitment to the Paris Agreement  and submitted its Updated NDC in April, 2021. BiH also submitted its Third National Communication (NC3) and Second Biennial Update Report on Green House Gas (GHG) Emissions in 2016. Identified adaptation priorities focus on agriculture, hydrology and water resources, energy, transportation, health, forests and biodiversity, and tourism.  Adaptation plans in Bosnia and Herzegovina center primarily on coping with drought and flooding. Measures under consideration include modifications in crop rotation patterns, the application of new technologies to improve soils, the installation of windbreaks, and the establishment of a drought early warning system.  The country is committed to reducing its GHG emissions even as current BiH GHG emissions represent less than 0.1% of global total emissions.