Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Malta.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Malta's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Malta's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

The Maltese archipelago consists of six islands namely Malta, Gozo, Comino, Cominotto, Filfla and St. Paul’s Islands. The latter three are uninhabited. The Archipelago is located in the center of the Mediterranean Sea and the main islands Malta, Gozo and Comino cover a total land area of approximately 320 km2 and 140 km of coastline. Total population amounted to over 440,000 in 2020. 

The Maltese economy is highly dependent on foreign trade services. Human resource remains the most important asset in the island’s economy. In spite of the lack of natural resources except for temperate climate, and historical and landscape features, over the past three decades the Maltese economy has transformed itself into a developed economy that is competing in the international market. 

The agriculture and fishing sector is relatively small, at around 2.5% of GDP, and in long term decline. This reflects mainly the unattractiveness for younger people to pursue an agricultural career because of the unsuitability of Maltese land and sea territory to allow for relatively large undertakings where new technology can be competitively applied. Industry and construction accounted for over a quarter of Maltese GDP up to 2003. However, as from 2004, the relative contribution of these sectors started to decline due to the expansion of the services sector. Service activities include distributive trades, financial services, transport, communication, and personal services. Taken together, services activities accounted for more than three quarters of the GDP since 2006.

Land is scarce and its diminution or impoverishment arising out of climate change could have significant effects. The Maltese economy is highly dependent on foreign trade, services and tourism. The climate of the Maltese Archipelago is typically Mediterranean, with distinct winter and summer season i.e. mild, rainy winters and dry, hot summers.