Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for North Macedonia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of North Macedonia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


The Republic of North Macedonia is a small (25,713 km2), landlocked country that is located in the middle of the Balkan Peninsula in Southern Europe. It has a diverse topography with high mountains and deep valleys surrounded by mountains, picturesque rivers, large and small natural lakes, and spas. Land use for agriculture covers almost 50% of the surface area of the country, and forests cover approximately one-third of the country. As an upper middle-income country, foreign trade accounts for more than 90% of its GDP. The agriculture sector also contributes to the country’s GDP and provides employment to 21.7% of the workforce. The country’s population is approximately 2.1 million (2020) people. The Republic of North Macedonia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change from changes in climatic conditions, such as increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation and increases in extreme weather events, such as heat waves. These pose increasing risks to the country’s agricultural sector which contributes to its overall economy.