Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Norway.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Norway's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Norway's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF


Norway is located in Northern Europe. It shares borders with Sweden, Finland, Russia, the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. Norway has a total area of 323,781 km2 and a mainland coastline of more than 2,500 km long, excluding fjords and bays. With approximately 5.4 million (2020) inhabitants, Norway has the lowest population density in Europe after Iceland. The large majority of the Norwegian population is settled along the coast and the fjords, and an increasing percentage, about 80% of the population lives in urban settlements. Norway is a small, open and integrated economy. The petroleum industry has for several decades been a key driver for economic growth in Norway. In 2016, the production of crude oil and natural gas accounted for 15% of the Norwegian GDP. The service sector (private and public) accounted for 65% of GDP and over 75% of employment in 2017. Norway is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change such as increase in annual mean temperature and precipitation, rainfall floods, summer droughts, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. The natural environment, infrastructure and buildings, in particular water and sewage, are particularly vulnerable to climate change in Norway.