Country

Gabon

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Gabon.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Gabon's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Gabon's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF
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Gabon is located in West Africa across the equator, between 2°30′ North and 3°55′ South latitude and 8°30′ East and 14°30′ East longitude. The western coastal boarder is along the Atlantic Ocean, south of the Bight of Biafra. Gabon shares land borders with Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon to the north, and Republic of Congo to the east and south. The country has a surface area of 268,000 square kilometers, with forests covering 85% of the territory. Gabon’s terrain includes a narrow coastal plain, with central African mangroves, a hilly interior and savanna grassland and forest in the east and south. Gabon has over 20 million hectares of forests. The country’s sea-front is associated with numerous rivers, resulting in significant marine and continental fish stocks. Over 70% of the total population of 2.2 million people (2019) lives in the coastal areas, which also houses the majority of economic activities. Gabon also has a wealth of extractive natural resources, primarily manganese, oil as well as its timber and forest reserves. The country has one of the highest urbanization rates in Africa (89.7%) and this is expected to rise to 92% and 95% by 2030 and 2050, respectively. 

Gabon is a high-income country with one of the most developed economies in sub-Saharan Africa; the majority of its income derived from oil revenues, contributing to 45% of GDP. It is the fifth largest oil producer in Africa and has experienced strong economic growth over the past decade due to its and manganese production. The services sector provide about 66% of employment, agriculture 19% and mining at just 5%; tourism is estimated at approximately 4%. Employment in manufacturing is limited, however, growing sub-sectors like agribusiness and wood manufacturing show promise of ultimately generating more jobs. Agriculture dominates the rural labor market; the public sector and related formal services dominate in Libreville and Port-Gentil. 

Given Gabon’s geographic location, hydrographic outlay and that the majority of the population and economic activities are located along the coast, the country is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. Increasing temperatures, rising seas, and changing precipitation patterns present significant pressure on vulnerable groups, urban infrastructure, and the economy. Furthermore, Gabon is reliant upon rainfed agriculture for its agriculture sector and food security. The country’s adaptation priorities include protecting its coastal zone, fishing agriculture and forestry sector. The country is committed to improving its agricultural sector in support of the country’s continued economic development efforts.