Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Argentina's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Argentina's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Argentina, the second largest country in South America after Brazil, covers an area of over 2.8 million square kilometers (km2). It extends over the southern area of the South American continent and shares borders with Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, and Uruguay to the north east. Argentina’s eastern coast line stretches for over 4,700 meters (m) along the South Atlantic Ocean. Continental Argentina extends between 20° and 60° latitude in the Southern Hemisphere, and the country has regions of sub-tropical climates and mid-latitudes, as well as extreme thermal conditions, which vary from hot in the north to very cold in the extreme south and at the heights of the Sierras and the Andes Mountains. It has humid lowlands in eastern Argentina, especially along the rivers of the Rio de la Plata system. In the north lie the savannas and swamps of the Chaco region. The humid pampa (plain) in the west gives way to rangeland and finally to desert that is broken only by irrigated oases, with the Andes Mountains marking the end of the western plains. Argentina has a diverse geophysical landscape range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere’s tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere. Argentina is endowed with natural resources, a significant amount of biodiversity and a vast range of vegetation.

Argentina is one of the largest economies in Latin America and is endowed with extraordinary fertile lands, gas and lithium reserves, and has great potential for renewable energy. It is a leading food producer with large-scale agricultural and livestock industries. In addition, Argentina has significant opportunities in some manufacturing subsectors, and innovative services in high tech industries. However, the historical volatility of economic growth and the accumulation of institutional obstacles have impeded the country’s development and urban poverty remains high.  Argentina has an estimated 45.4 million people (2020) with projections suggesting the country’s population could reach nearly 49.2 and 54.9 million people by 2030 and 2050, respectively. The majority of Argentinians live in urban areas and a projected 93% and 95% will do so in 2030 and 2050, respectively. The country has a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of approximately $383.0 billion in 2020.