Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Monaco.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Monaco's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Monaco's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF


The Principality of Monaco is a landlocked state in French territory along the Côte d'Azur, halfway between the city of Nice and the Italian Border. Monaco is the second smallest independent state and the most densely populated country in the world with its entire population living on 2 km2. The topography of the Principality comprises a mountainous cirque dropping down to the Mediterranean Sea. The country’s entire territory is urbanized and forms the centre of an economic urban area which also includes neighboring French towns. The population of Monaco is approximately 39,244 people (2020), which has been steadily increasing since 1990. Monaco’s main economic sectors are financial, tourism, and construction. Monaco is vulnerable to the climate impacts of increase in periods of high temperature including heatwaves, increase in sea level including frequency of extreme events and coastal hazards, and changes in climatic characteristics.