Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Pakistan.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Pakistan's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Pakistan's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Pakistan is characterized by diverse topography, ecosystems, and climate zones. Rich in natural resources, including fertile agricultural lands, natural gas reserves, and mineral deposits, Pakistan faces challenges in balancing competing objectives between economic development and environmental protection. A semi-industrialized country, Pakistan has grown from a primarily agriculture-based to a mostly service-based economy (with services constituting 49.4% of GDP in 2019). As of 2019 agriculture was still the largest employer, occupying 42.6% of the workforce. As of 2013 approximately 29.5% of the population still lived below the national poverty line and 12.3% (2018) of the population remained undernourished. The majority of Pakistan’s 220.9 million people (2020) live along the Indus River, an area prone to severe flooding in July and August. Major earthquakes are also frequent in the mountainous northern and western regions.