Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Lebanon.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Lebanon's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Lebanon's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Lebanon is located on the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Dominated by mountains, 67% of the country’s total land is arable and 13% is forest. The economy is dominated by the service sector, which contributes 45% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). In light of recent rising world food prices and the effects of climate change on agriculture, the country is likely to face serious food shortages in the near future. Degraded sandy soils contribute to dust and sand storms, which are hazardous to humans and livestock. Signs of water shortages are evident due to increased demand from agriculture and industry. Weak institutional structures, policies and legislations, limited access to new technologies, skills and technical resources are some of the factors that hamper Lebanon’s ability to address the current challenges, especially in relation to water, agriculture, forests and coastal areas.

The Ministry of Environment is the focal point for all climate policies and coordination with domestic stakeholders and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on issues germane to environment and climate change. The country of Lebanon has conducted a national level greenhouse gas emissions inventory, has implemented a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) that stresses the transport, energy, waste, forestry, and industry sectors. Lebanon has yet to ratify the Paris Agreement as of March 2018, but the country's associated Intended Nationally Determined Contribution can be found here.