Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Lebanon.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Lebanon's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Lebanon's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Lebanon is located on the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea, with a surface area of 10,452 km2, a coastline extending on 225 km and a landscape characterized by mostly mountainous areas. The population of Lebanon is 6.8 million (2020) and is characterized by a high density of around 496 persons/km2. Most of the population are concentrated in the biggest cities of the country along the coastline. The largest sector contributing to the economy in Lebanon is commercial trade accounting, followed by real estate. The sector with the lowest contributing share to the GDP is the agriculture, forestry and fishing sector. Lebanon imports more than it exports and is largely dependent on imports for food and fuel. 

Climatic changes are expected to have diverse implications on Lebanon’s environment, economy, and social structure. Extreme weather events can have adverse impacts on public health, human settlements, transport infrastructure, agriculture production, power supply and the economy at large. The fragile biodiversity, ecosystems, and natural habitats will be threatened by increased forest fires, pest outbreaks and sea level rise.