Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Indonesia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Indonesia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Indonesia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

The Republic of Indonesia, herein Indonesia, is the world’s largest archipelagic state, consisting of more than 17,500 islands with over 81,000 kilometres (km) of coastline, a population of 270.6 million as of 2019 and the largest economy in Southeast Asia. The country’s islands are home to an extremely varied geography, topography, and climate, ranging from sea and coastal systems to peat swamps and montane forests.

Indonesia is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts, including extreme events such as floods and droughts, and long-term changes from sea level rise, shifts in rainfall patterns and increasing temperature. While rapid economic growth has led to a reduction in poverty in recent decades, with the poverty rate halving from 24% in 1999 to 9.78% in 2020, high population density in hazard prone areas, coupled with strong dependence on the country’s natural resource base, make Indonesia vulnerable to the projected climate variability and climate change. These impacts of climate change will be felt across multiple sectors and regions. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) estimates that by 2100, the impacts of climate change could cost between 2.5–7% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP), with the poorest bearing the brunt of this burden.

Indonesia’s first national strategy on climate change was developed by the Ministry of Environment in 2007. Indonesia ratified the Paris Agreement on October 31, 2016 and established its commitment through its Nationally-Determined Contribution (2016). Indonesia completed its Third National Communication (NC3) in 2017 and its Second Biennial Update Report (2018).