Country

Indonesia

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Indonesia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Indonesia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Indonesia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF
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The Republic of Indonesia, herein Indonesia, is the world’s largest archipelagic state, consisting of more than 17,500 islands with over 81,000 kilometers (km) of coastline. The country’s islands are home to an extremely varied geography, topography, and climate, ranging from sea and coastal systems to peat swamps and montane forests. Indonesia has a population of over 273 million (2020). Today, Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation. Manufacturing sector is the major contributor to GDP. 

Indonesia is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts, including extreme events such as floods and droughts, and long-term changes from sea level rise, shifts in rainfall patterns and increasing temperature. While rapid economic growth has led to a reduction in poverty in recent decades, with the poverty rate halving from 24% in 1999 to 9.78% in 2020, high population density in hazard prone areas, coupled with strong dependence on the country’s natural resource base, make Indonesia vulnerable to the projected climate variability and climate change. These impacts of climate change will be felt across multiple sectors and regions as the impacts of climate change could cost between 2.5–7% of the country’s GDP, with the poorest bearing the brunt of this burden.