Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Armenia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Armenia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Armenia is a land-locked country within the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. The majority of the country is at high altitude (greater than 1,000 meters [m] above sea-level), including Lake Sevan, a freshwater lake, with a surface area of 1,279 kilometers (km2) and the Seven River Basin with a surface area of 4,721 km2, spans approximately one sixth of the nation’s total land area. As of 2019, Armenia’s population was estimated at 2.95 million people (2020) and its GDP at $13.6 billion. Around one third of the nation’s population lives in its capital city, Yerevan.

Over the past decade, Armenia has transitioned from an industry-dominated to a service-dominated economy. As of 2016, the service sector constituted 48.8% of the labor force. Agriculture remains a major employer with a labor market share of 35.3% and there remains a relatively high rate of unemployment (18%) as well as net out-migration. GDP is distributed less evenly than employment, with around 55% originating in the service sector and only 17% in agriculture. Poverty persists, affecting around 29% of the population based on the national poverty line. 

In 2020 The Ministry of Environment delivered its Fourth National Communication on Climate Change (NC4) and its Second Biennial Report in 2018 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Governance and management of climate change issues and projects is integrated across multiple agencies and relevant sectors of the Armenian government. International reporting responsibilities fall on the Ministry of Environment. Armenia signed and ratified the Paris Climate Agreement in 2017 and its First Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in 2015. Armenia has also ratified the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on “Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer” in 2019 and has committed to phase-out the use of HFCs from 2024 onwards, seeking a total reduction by 80%–85% by 2045. Armenia’s NDC establishes the country’s strong commitment to climate change adaptation measures and identifies its efforts in national greenhouse gas mitigation efforts. In Armenia, key sectors identified for adaptation action include: natural ecosystems, human health, water resources management, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, energy, human settlements, infrastructure, and tourism. Armenia formally joined the Nationally Determined Contributions Partnership in 2018. Through this partnership, Armenia will receive targeted and coordinated technical assistance, including the design of climate change national and sectoral development policy, implementation and monitoring of mitigation and adaptation projects, as well as access to financial support in bilateral and multilateral formats, to further support the country to meet its adaptation goals and climate change commitments.