Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Georgia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Georgia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Georgia is situated in the south-eastern part of Europe, south to the Great Caucasus Range. Georgia is bordered by Russia to the north, by Armenia to the south, by Azerbaijan to the southeast, by Türkiye to the southwest and by the Black Sea to the west. Georgia covers a territory of 76,284 square kilometers, including the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region and the territorial waters, of which the land area takes about 91%, and the water takes about 9%. Two third of country’s territory is mountainous, with a complex relief. 54% of its territory is located at the altitude above 1000 m. The landscape of the country is quite varied with its mountains, plateaus, low-lands, glaciers, swamps and arid areas (semi-deserts), lakes and rivers. With regard of land use, 15.8% represents the cropland, 70.6% is covered by forests, shrubs and grasslands, and 13.6% is used for agriculture activities. Geographically Georgia is divided into two parts: East and West, naturally divided by the Likhi Range. By January 1, 2019 the population of Georgia was 3,723 thousand - 6,000 less than in 2018. 59% of the population is urban, and the rest 41% - rural. 1,171 thousand people live in Tbilisi, i.e. more than 30% of the total population. Population density is 65.1 persons per 1 km2. Economic growth has been solid – averaging 5% per annum between 2005 and 2019 – and poverty (national measure) declined rapidly to 19.5% in 2019, almost half its 2007 rate, spurred by sound macroeconomic policies and improved governance. The country’s economy is supported by its services, tourism, financial (banks), and construction sectors, a transition from industry- and agriculture-based economy.

The climate change and its adverse impacts on ecosystems and economy pose severe threats to Georgia’s sustainable development. Thus, Georgia’s main objective is to improve the country’s preparedness and adaptive capacity by developing climate resilient practices reducing vulnerability of highly exposed communities.