Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Nigeria's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Nigeria's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

The Federal Republic of Nigeria, herein Nigeria, is located along the inner corner of the Gulf of Guinea on the west coast of Africa. The country shares borders with Benin to the west, Niger to the north, and Chad and Cameroon to the east; its southern coast is along the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. Nigeria has a land area of 923,768 square kilometers (km2) and includes 853 km of coastline. 

Nigeria has two main relief regions: the high plateau ranging between 300 meters (m) to 900 m above sea level, and the lowlands, which are generally less than 300 m. The high plateaus include the North Central Plateau, the Eastern and North Eastern Highlands and the Western Uplands. The lowlands comprise the Sokoto Plains, the Niger-Benue Trough, the Chad Basin, the interior coastal lowlands of western Nigeria, the lowlands and scarp lands of south eastern Nigeria and coastlands. The Niger Delta is a low-lying region, defined by a complicated system of natural and man-made channels through which the River Niger eventually empties into the sea.  

Nigeria is a lower middle-income country and has been the largest economy in Africa since 2012. With an abundance of natural resources, it is Africa's biggest oil exporter, and has the largest natural gas reserves on the continent. As a key regional player in West Africa, Nigeria accounts for about half of West Africa's population and one of the largest populations of youth in the world. Nigeria had a population of 206.14 million people (2020) with an annual population growth rate of 2.5%. Nigeria’s population is projected to reach 262.9 and 401.3 million people in 2030 and 2050, respectively. Nationally, 40% of Nigerians live below the poverty line, while another 25% are vulnerable. 

Nigeria has identified its adaptation priorities, which include sustainable land use and water resource management that results in food security, appropriate urban development, preservation of its biodiversity and ecosystem services, social protection mechanisms, infrastructure resilience, improved health and disaster risk reduction for reduced vulnerability across the country.