Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Estonia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Estonia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Estonia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Located between latitudes 57°30’ N and 59°49’ N and longitudes 21°46’ E and 28°13’ E, on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, Estonia is the northernmost and the smallest country in the Baltic States. Estonia has a population of 1.3 million and 68.5% lived in urban areas in 2016. The country’s total area is 45,339 km2, of which almost half is covered by forests.  Although Estonia is a relatively small country by area, it has a comparatively large proportion of unspoiled protected nature. Due to the available natural resources, all forest-related sectors are imperative for Estonian economy. The economy of Estonia is small, but open and has seen growth in the past few years. GDP per capita (PPP) was 47% of the EU average in 2001 and in 2013, it reached 73%. 

Estonia’s climate is largely influenced by its geographical position. Local climatic differences are mainly caused by the neighboring Baltic Sea, which warms up the coastal zone in winter and later has a cooling effect, especially in spring. Estonia lies in the transition zone between maritime and continental climates. Sea-level rise may be one of the main impacts of climate change for Estonia, which could strongly affect the territory of the country because of its relatively long coastline and extensive low-lying coastal areas (Seventh National Communication, 2018). Estonia submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as an EU Member State in 2015.