Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Estonia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Estonia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Estonia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF


Estonia is the northernmost and also the smallest country in the Baltic States, in terms of both population (1.3 million in 2020) and area (45,339 km2). In 2016, 68.5% of the population lived in urban areas. Urban expansion is occurring in Estonia, which is resulting in the weakening of the position of most of the country towns and small towns. Almost half of the land of Estonia is covered by forests. The country has a very flat coastline and a number of islets, as well as large number of lakes and rivers. Estonia’s country is dependent on high volume of the export of products and services, amounting to 90% of Estonia’s GDP.

The country is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change from sea level rise due to thermal expansion and the melting of glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. Accelerated sea level rise could strongly affect the country due to its relatively long coastline and extensive low-lying coastal areas.