Country

Estonia

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Estonia.

Country Context

Located between latitudes 57°30’ N and 59°49’ N and longitudes 21°46’ E and 28°13’ E, on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, Estonia is the northernmost and the smallest country in the Baltic States. Estonia has a population of 1.3 million and 68.5% lived in urban areas in 2016. The country’s total area is 45,339 km2, of which almost half is covered by forests.  Although Estonia is a relatively small country by area, it has a comparatively large proportion of unspoiled protected nature. Due to the available natural resources, all forest-related sectors are imperative for Estonian economy. The economy of Estonia is small, but open and has seen growth in the past few years. GDP per capita (PPP) was 47% of the EU average in 2001 and in 2013, it reached 73%. 

Estonia’s climate is largely influenced by its geographical position. Local climatic differences are mainly caused by the neighboring Baltic Sea, which warms up the coastal zone in winter and later has a cooling effect, especially in spring. Estonia lies in the transition zone between maritime and continental climates. Sea-level rise may be one of the main impacts of climate change for Estonia, which could strongly affect the territory of the country because of its relatively long coastline and extensive low-lying coastal areas (Seventh National Communication, 2018). Estonia submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as an EU Member State in 2015.

Country level data at a glance

Climate Data

Historical Trends

The section provides access to historical climate datasets for both temperature and precipitation from 1900 to 2016.

Projected Trends

The section provides access to future climate datasets for both temperature and precipitation and their statistical derivatives for various timeframes and emission scenarios from 2020 to 2099.

The section provides access to future climate datasets for both temperature and precipitation and their statistical derivatives for various timeframes and emission scenarios from 2020 to 2099.

Climate by Sector

This section contains information from multiple climate indicators and indices relevant for key economic sectors. Simple narratives can help you interpret and extract summaries of potential climate change impacts at the sector level.

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Vulnerability

This section allows you to explore the susceptibility of livelihoods and natural systems to impacts from climate variability and change and facilitate the exploration of socioeconomic and development data and its relationships with natural hazards vulnerable areas.

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Impacts

This section allows you to explore the climate information from multiple climate indicators and present them with simple, embedded interpretation for an informative, high-level summary of the potential for future climate change impacts on key socioeconomic sectors.

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Adaptation

This section helps you grasp key national adaptation policies and reports, explore options for key sectors, and understand current adaptation gaps and needs for enhanced climate smart planning.

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