Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Eswatini.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Eswatini's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Eswatini's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Eswatini is the smallest country in the southern hemisphere with a total surface area of 17,360 km2. It is landlocked and shares borders with South Africa and Mozambique. Eswatini has a population of 1.3 million people (2016), with an annual growth rate of 1.8%. The country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was $3.7 billion (2016), with annual growth rate in 1.4% (2016), peaking at 6.4% in 2013.  Eswatini is categorized as a lower middle-income country. South Africa accounts for 90% of Eswatini’s imports and 80% of the country’s national electricity is imported from South Africa. Agriculture is the most important sector for the majority of Eswatini’s population, as well as national food security and economic development. Given the projected impacts from climate change, diversification of economic activities is necessary if the country is to reduce its level of vulnerability, specifically within the agriculture sectors as well as achieve its development goals.

Eswatini is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and has identified key sectors at risk to climate change which have been prioritized in adaptation strategies: agriculture, water, biodiversity and ecosystems, and health.  Full implementation of Eswatini’s climate change adaptation strategies are contingent upon the continued strengthening of the country’s technical capacities, technology enhancement and financial support received to invest in key adaptation programming. Adaptation strategies to climate change have been identified in Eswatini’s Second National Communication to the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2012 and its Nationally-Determined Contribution submitted in 2015.