Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Egypt's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Egypt's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

The Arab Republic of Egypt is located in the north-eastern corner of Africa. Egypt’s northern border is the Mediterranean Sea, with Sudan to the south, the Red Sea, Palestine, and Israel to the east, and Libya to the west. The country has a total land area of 995,450 square kilometers (km) and a coastline of 3,500 km along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. The topography ranges from 133 m below sea level in the Western Desert to 2,629 m above sea level in the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt’s coastal zones extend for over 3,500 km along the Mediterranean and Red Sea. The Mediterranean shoreline is most vulnerable to sea level rise due to its relative low elevation compared to the land around it. The Delta and its north coast are hosts to several primary towns and cities such as Alexandria, Port Said, Damietta, and Rosetta, all with populations of several million, and large investments in industrial, touristic and agricultural activities as well as in the infrastructure serving these activities. Egypt has a population of 102.3 million people (2020) and is projected to reach 120.8 million people by 2030 and 159.9 million by 2050. An estimated 43% of the current population resides in urban areas, which is expected to reach 56% in 2050. 

Egypt submitted its Nationally-Determined Contribution (NDC) and Third National Communication (NC3) to the UNFCCC in 2016, in support of the its efforts to realize its development and economic goals and increase its adaptive capacity to climate change. The country is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate variability and change, particularly with respect to water security, agriculture and livestock, increasingly adverse conditions to health, human settlements, and energy demand and supply. Egypt’s NDC is consistent with the country’s overall goals of reducing vulnerability and poverty, and achieving long-term sustainable, economic development. Key areas of focus include the sustainability of the environment, water resources, energy, sustainable land management, agriculture, and health.