Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Eritrea.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Eritrea's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Eritrea's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Eritrea is located in the Horn of Africa, lying between 12022′, and 18002′north and between 360 26′ and 43013′east. Sudan borders it in the west, Ethiopia in the south, Djibouti in the south east, and the Red Sea in the east. The country has a total land area of 124,300 km2, and a coast line of 1900km. Eritrea’s territorial waters in the Red Sea zone is about 120,000 km2.  It has diversified Eco geographic zones that provide unique habitat for the marine terrestrial fauna and flora.  In 2010, the population of Eritrea was estimated to be 3.2 million with an annual population growth rate of 2.9% and a per capita GDP is US$ 626, comprising of 65% living in the rural areas. The economic activity, for most of the population, mainly relies on rain fed agriculture and artisanal fisheries.

Eritrea is vulnerable to climate change and both the marine and terrestrial ecosystems have been negatively affected. Over the past 60 years temperature has risen by approximately 1.7°C with tremendous impact on biodiversity losses, sea level rise and coral bleaching due to increase in sea water temperature, decline in food production, loss of biodiversity and overall loss of resilience of the ecosystem. Hence, the country plans to adapt climate smart technologies to counteract the adverse impacts of climate change, so as to improve the health and social wellbeing of the population (Nationally Determined Contribution, 2015).