Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Eritrea's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Eritrea's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Eritrea is small, coastal country strategically located along the Red Sea in the Horn of Africa, bordered by Sudan, Ethiopia and Djibouti. The country has a total land area of 124,300 km2, and a coast line of 1900 km. Eritrea’s territorial waters in the Red Sea zone is about 120,000 km2. It has diversified eco-geographic zones that provide unique habitat for the marine terrestrial fauna and flora. Eritrea's economy is highly dependent on predominantly rain-fed agriculture sector, accounting for about one-third of the economy (and which has a significant impact on distribution services which account for around 20% of GDP, and on a narrow mining sector which accounts for 20% of the economy). Eritrea's population was over 3.2 million in 2011, which is the most recent available data. The population is unevenly distributed, with nearly 50 -60% of the population living in the highlands, an area accounting for not more than 10% of the total area.

Eritrea is vulnerable to climate change and both the marine and terrestrial ecosystems have been negatively affected. Over the past 60 years temperature has risen by approximately 1.7°C with tremendous impact on biodiversity losses, sea level rise and coral bleaching due to increase in sea water temperature, decline in food production, loss of biodiversity and overall loss of resilience of the ecosystem.