Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Mozambique's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Mozambique's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Mozambique borders Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, and eSwatini. Its long Indian Ocean coastline of 2,500 km faces east to Madagascar. About two-thirds of its population of more than 31 million (2020) live and work in rural areas. It is endowed with ample arable land, water, energy, as well as newly discovered natural gas and mineral resources offshore; three, deep seaports; and a relatively large potential pool of labor. Agriculture remains as one of the most important economic sectors in Mozambique. The country experiences high levels of climate variability and extreme weather events (i.e. droughts, floods, and tropical cyclones).

Droughts are the most frequent disaster, occurring every three to four years, and pose a major constraint to development since most of the country’s population, especially the poor, reside in rural areas and rely on rain-fed agriculture. Mozambique also lies at the end of numerous transnational river basins and flooding in its deltas is a perennial threat to both farmers and infrastructure, especially when coupled with cyclonic storm surges. Mozambique is already investing in prevention of natural hazards and improving its early warning systems. Adaptation measures are being implemented in the agriculture, fisheries, energy, environmental, and water sectors, with particular attention being paid to the coastal zones and erosion control.