Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Uganda.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Uganda's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Uganda's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Uganda is a land-locked country located in East Africa and lies in both the northern and southern hemispheres, with approximate latitudes of 2°S to 5°N and approximate longitudes of 29.5° to 36.0°. The country is approximately 241,500 km2 and is bordered by Kenya to the east, South Sudan to the North, Tanzania and Rwanda to the south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the West. 17% of the country is covered by water and swamp land. The central part of Uganda is a plateau, surrounded by four main mountain ranges: Rwenzori, Elgon, Mufumbira, and Moroto; the tallest point is the peak of Mt. Rwenzori at 5,110 m. Uganda has substantial natural resources, including relatively fertile soils; a high degree of biodiversity; rich vegetation; abundant water resources; small deposits of copper, gold, other minerals, and oil. However, the country also faces several developmental constraints such as high population growth (the second highest in the world), post-conflict conditions in the North, soil erosion and degradation, and impacts of malaria and HIV/AIDS; added stressors from climate change are expected to exacerbate these challenges.

Uganda has a population over 44.3 million (2019), with an annual population growth rate of 3.6% (2019). Uganda’s population is projected to reach 63.8 million by 2030 and 105.7 million by 2050. The country has a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of $35.1 billion (2019), growing at an average annual rate of 4.5% over the past five years. The national poverty rate increased to 20% in 2017, however, the poorest region: the Northern region, decreased its poverty rate from 44% (2013) to 33% (2017). According to 2019 data, the country’s GDP is primarily comprised of the agriculture sector, which contributed 23.1% to GDP, the industry sector (including mining, construction, electricity, water and gas), which contributed 26.3% of GDP, the export of goods and services which contributed 17.2% to the country’s economy; tourism which contributed 6.6% to GDP in 2016.