Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Haiti's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Haiti's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Haiti is a small country occupying the western half of the Island of Hispaniola which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti’s terrain is dominated by rugged mountains interspersed with river valleys and coastal flat lands, with much of the population residing near the coast. Haiti has a long history of political violence and economic imbalance, and population pressure has led to extreme environmental degradation, with an estimated 98 percent of forests cleared for fuel. These destabilizing forces have left most Haitians extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. Hurricanes and tropical storms routinely hit Haiti, causing massive flooding and deadly landslides. Haiti had a population of 11.2 million as of 2020.

Haiti remains highly vulnerable to natural hazards, mainly hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes. More than 96% of the population is exposed to these types of shocks. Hurricane Matthew, which hit the country in 2016, caused losses and damages estimated at 32% of 2015 GDP, while the 2010 earthquake, that killed about 250,000 people, decimated 120% of the country GDP. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency, intensity, and impacts of extreme weather events, and the country still lacks adequate preparedness and coping mechanisms. The Haitian economy is mainly supported by exports of agricultural products, such as coffee, cocoa, maize, and rice, among others.

Haiti’s Ministry of Environment supervises and validates strategic environmental assessments (SEAs) and environmental impact assessments (EIAs) that integrate climate change adaptation considerations, and monitors the implementation of measures recommended by SEAs/EIAs. This ministry also sets up an enabling institutional and budgetary framework for the replication of successful experiences and the dissemination of practices and techniques that promote enhanced resilience to climate change and climate risks, as well as the development and implementation of an advocacy, communication, and awareness raising strategy and plan.