Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Poland.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Poland's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Poland's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

The Republic of Poland is a country located in Central Europe that links the forested lands of northwestern Europe to the sea lanes of the Atlantic Ocean and the fertile plains of the Eurasian frontier. The country covers an area of 312,696 km2 and has a population of approximately 38.5 million people. Poland has the sixth-highest GDP (PPP) in the European Union (EU) and fifth-highest greenhouse gas emissions in the EU. Particulate pollution from fossil fuel combustion is estimated to cause 45,000 deaths each year in Poland (European Environment Agency).

Poland’s climate is mostly temperate throughout the country. The climate is oceanic in the north and west and becomes gradually warmer and continental towards the south and east. Summers are generally warm, with average temperatures between 18°C and 30°C depending on the region. Winters are rather cold, with average temperatures around 3°C in the northwest and −6°C in the northeast. Precipitation falls throughout the year, although, especially in the east, winter is drier than summer. In its National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (SPA 2020), Poland identifies the improvement of its water management system, coastal zone management, health, urban areas and spatial development, energy, transport, forests, biodiversity and agriculture as priority areas.