Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Madagascar.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Madagascar's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Madagascar's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Madagascar is a large island nation located in the southwestern part of the Indian Ocean, just off the southeastern edge of the African continent. The country encompasses a diversity of ecosystems, with a highland plateau extending throughout the center, fringed by low-lying coastal areas on all sides and a number of rivers. Development challenges loom large for Madagascar, where poverty rates hover at 71%, illiteracy is at 70%, the political situation is uncertain, and food security remains a significant issue. The key sectors of the country’s national economy include agriculture, fishery, and livestock production. Madagascar faces significant risks imposed by an increasingly variable and changing climate. Cyclones, droughts, and floods are all common occurrences in the country. These events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, affecting food security, drinking water supply and irrigation, public health systems, environmental management, and lifestyle.

Madagascar’s National Policy to Combat Climate Change, developed in 2010, has as its primary goal to “strengthen adaptation to climate change.” The Ministry of the Environment, of Ecology, the Sea, and Forests (MEEMF) is responsible for coordinating, implementing, and mainstreaming climate change actions in social and economic sectors. The National Bureau of Climate Change Coordination (BNCCC), within MEEMF, oversees implementation of all measures in the country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution, which can be found here. The BNCCC works closely with ministries, the National Climate Change Committee, regional environmental offices, and non-governmental actors. Madagascar ratified the Paris Agreement on September 21, 2016.