Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Madagascar.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Madagascar's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Madagascar's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Madagascar is a large island nation located in the southwestern part of the Indian Ocean, just off the southeastern edge of the African continent. Madagascar is the fifth largest island in the world. The country encompasses a diversity of ecosystems, with a highland plateau extending throughout the center, fringed by low-lying coastal areas on all sides and a number of rivers. The key sectors of the country’s national economy include agriculture, fishery, and livestock production. Madagascar faces significant risks imposed by an increasingly variable and changing climate. Madagascar's population was 27.5 million in 2020.

Madagascar is one of the African countries most severely affected by climate change impacts and experiences an average of three cyclones per year. Madagascar’s National Policy to Combat Climate Change, developed in 2010, has as its primary goal to “strengthen adaptation to climate change.” The Ministry of the Environment, of Ecology, the Sea, and Forests (MEEMF) is responsible for coordinating, implementing, and mainstreaming climate change actions in social and economic sectors.