Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Sudan.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Sudan's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Sudan's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Sudan sits at the crossroads of Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, its powerful neighbor, Egypt, bordering it to the north, Libya and Chad to the west, and Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east. Its capital, Khartoum, lies at the confluence of the White and Blue Niles, and its main port on the Red Sea. Although mostly desert, it has fertile land, mountains, and livestock. Away from oil, agriculture and livestock are essential to Sudans economic diversification and could contribute to medium-term macroeconomic stability. These sectors presently contribute approximately 35%–40% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), but could contribute significantly more with greater investment and better governance. Sudan now recognizes the need for greater attention to agriculture and livestock, as reflected in its Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (I-PRSP) and the Five-year Program for Economic Reforms approved by its parliament in December 2014.

The Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Physical Development is the main government body responsible for developing and implementing climate change policies. The first National Adaptation Plan was developed in 2014 with international support. Sudan also carried out significant climate related research for its Second National Communication to UNFCCC in 2013 and identified climate vulnerabilities and priorities for adaptation in its National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in 2007. Sudan ratified Paris Agreement in September 2017 and submitted its first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). The NDC has placed significant emphasis on adaptation and lists Sudan’s intended policies and actions to help communities adapt to climate change. The major priority areas for adaptation efforts include agriculture, water, coastal zones and health sectors.