Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Panama.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Panama's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Panama's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

The Republic of Panama located on the isthmus linking Central and South America and is bordered by Costa Rica, Colombia, the Caribbean Sea, and the Pacific Ocean. In Panama, widespread poverty and inequality have negative spillover effects on the environment. Panama is considered one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world, and more than 12% of Panama’s landmass is protected. Nonetheless, poverty pressures have driven many to exploit the natural resources of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in harmful ways. In addition, deforestation is a growing concern. With estimated 4.3 million (2020) people, Panama’s economy is led by the service sector which includes sub-sectors such as air transportation, tourism, and construction, contributing to 83% of GDP, 90% of exports and 65% of employment (2019). Climate change threatens to increase vulnerability of both human and ecological systems in Panama. The agriculture, water resources, forestry, coastal zone management and health sectors will be particularly impacted. More frequent and intense storms, floods, and droughts are causing huge economic losses and affecting the livelihoods of the poorest and most marginalized members of society.