Country

Luxembourg

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Luxembourg.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Luxembourg's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Luxembourg's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF
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Luxembourg is a territory of 2 586 km2. The maximum distance from north to south is some 82 km, from west to east about 57 km. Of the total area of Luxembourg, 85.5% was agricultural land and land under forest – with around 51% for agriculture and 35% for forests. The built-up areas occupied 9.5% of the total surface and land covered by water and transport infrastructure about 5%.

The north of Luxembourg is a part of the Ardennes and is called “Ösling”. Its altitude is at an average of 400 to 500 meters above sea level. The “Ösling” landscape is affected by hills and deep river valleys, as for instance the Sure River (Sauer). With 560 m, the highest elevation is called the “Kneiff” in Wilwerdange. In the South of Luxembourg lies the rank “Gutland”, which belongs to the “Lothringer Stufenland”. This area has higher population and industrial densities than “Ösling”. The lowest point in the country, called “Spatz” (129 m above sea level), is located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Sure rivers in Wasserbillig. Most important rivers are the Moselle, the Sure, the Our – all three delimiting the border with Germany – and the Alzette. 

At the end of 2020, the population of Luxembourg amounted to 625,000 inhabitants. Within slightly more than 55 years, the residential population has grown by some 276,000 inhabitants or about 87.5% – 55.7% since 1990. The average annual growth rate of the resident population of Luxembourg is high compared to the rates of its neighboring regions: between 1990 and 2016, the average annual growth rate for Luxembourg (1.7%) was about 4 times higher than its equivalent for the Grande Région. In Luxembourg, gross value added is mainly generated in the financial intermediation (banking and insurances), real estate and services to business sector.

Two particular threats from climate change are of concern for Luxembourg: those relating to forests and temperature extremes and summer precipitation reduction are also causes of concern due to their impacts of human health, especially of the most fragile persons and the elderly (heat, air quality), and impacts on water quality in summer when rivers flows are usually at their lowest.