Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Kazakhstan.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Kazakhstan's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Kazakhstan's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

The Republic of Kazakhstan is situated in north-central Eurasia. Kazakhstan’s terrain is diverse, with the country situated in four climate zones: forest-steppe; steppe; semi-desert and desert. Kazakhstan has a land area equal to that of Western Europe but one of the lowest population densities globally. According to an assessment, nearly 75% of the country’s territory is subject to high-risk ecological destabilization. The main source of economic growth is the country’s raw resources. Since 1985, Kazakhstan’s production of hydrocarbons has increased 225%. The country’s 2005 oil production amounted to 61.9 million tons and the production of natural gas was 25.2 billion cubic meters. Kazakhstan’s gross domestic product growth is accompanied by significant greenhouse gas emissions. It is estimated that around 75% of the country is at increased risk of adverse environmental impact to climate change.

The Ministry of Environment and Water Resources of Kazakhstan was the central executive body coordinating and leading the development and implementation of government policies on environment protection and management, including climate change issues. The Ministry was closed in 2014, and its functions divided between a newly-created Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of Agriculture. Kazakhstan ratified the Paris Agreement on December 6, 2016, and the country's associated Intended Nationally Determined Contribution can be found here.