Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Belgium.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Belgium's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Belgium's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Belgium is a small country with a surface area of 30,528 km2 in north-western Europe and 3 454 km² of the North Sea. It shares borders with the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France and has a coastline of 73.1 km along the North Sea. The Belgian GDP amounted to US$ 515.3 billion in 2020. The country has a population of Belgium 11.6 million people in 2020. Although Belgium is highly urbanized and is the third most densely populated country in Europe, forests and other natural areas have remained relatively stable (23% of the territory). Its latitude and the proximity of the sea warmed by the Gulf Stream give Belgium a temperate maritime climate characterized by moderate temperatures, prevailing southerly to westerly winds, abundant cloud cover and frequent precipitation. Summers are relatively cool and humid and winters relatively mild and rainy. Impact, vulnerability and adaptation assessments have been funded and piloted at the regional and federal level. Belgium submitted its updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as an EU Member State in 2020 and its Seventh National Communication in 2017.