Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Israel.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Israel's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Israel's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

The State of Israel is located on the southwest tip of the Asian continent, in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea. The country lies at a latitude between 29° and 33° north of the Equator, with a total area of 22,072 km2, 97.6% of which is land and 2.4% of which is marine (Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea). Israel's population is over 9 million (2020). The manufacturing industry is key to Israel’s economy. 

The most crucial component of Israel’s climate is the rainfall regime. Changes in the rainfall regime, including annual quantity, number of rain spells, seasonal distribution, intensity and timing, all have major impacts on the country’s water resources.

Israel‘s vast range of ecosystems, from the humid Mediterranean coast to the arid desert, hosts a range of climate vulnerabilities and challenges. As temperatures increase, conditions become drier and storms become stronger, critical resources will become more vulnerable. Climate change also imposes an economic cost. The cost of expected climate changes, in the absence of any mitigation and/or adaptation actions, is estimated at 5% of the annual GDP, and is expected to grow by 1-5% by the end of the 21st century.