Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Tuvalu.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Tuvalu's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Tuvalu's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Tuvalu is a microstate of the Polynesian sub-region of the southern Pacific Ocean which consists of nine atolls. Tuvalu is recognized internationally as one of the most climate-vulnerable states on earth. Its islands, which have a surface area of only 26 square kilometers (km2) and had a population of approximately 11,600 as of 2019, have an average height above sea-level of less than 3 meter (m). Not only is Tuvalu threatened by sea-level rise, it must contend with extreme exposure to tropical cyclones. Tuvalu’s economy has become highly dependent on external aid and employment opportunities are limited. Issues of poverty and deprivation have persisted in Tuvalu, but detailed data is sparse.

Fishing and fishing licenses provide 42% of national revenue, with other income sources including its internet domain, the national trust fund, and remittances from family members abroad. In recent years Tuvalu has seen migration from the outer islands to its capital, Funafuti. Additionally, United Nations research estimates that around 15% of the population of Tuvalu left the country between 2005–2015. A majority of the population are considering emigration but many do not have the financial resources to do so. Tuvalu is characterized by high levels of inequality as measured by consumption levels in an assessment by the World Bank.

The prosperity of Tuvalu’s population depends upon effective management of climate changes, variability, and disaster risk. The Tuvalu Climate Change Policy (2012–2021) sets the country’s direction over the period 2012–2021. Reflecting the country’s precarious position, consideration is given to issues of vulnerability, disaster preparedness, planning and impact assessment, but also to migration and relocation needs. As documented in Tuvalu’s Second National Communication to the UNFCCC (2015) the country has made repeated attempts since the 1980s to construct disaster protection infrastructure, these have failed to provide sustained protection. Tuvalu has signed and ratified the Paris Agreement and its Nationally Determined Contribution (2015).