Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Mali.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Mali's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Mali's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

The Republic of Mali with its 1,241,238 km2 is one of the largest states in West Africa. Crossed by two large rivers, Niger and Senegal, Mali does not have a maritime frontage and shares borders with seven countries: Algeria, Mauritania, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Guinea, and Senegal. It is a vast country with a population over 20 million in 2020 and a highly undiversified economy. As such, it is vulnerable to commodity price fluctuations and the consequences of climate change. 

The country can be divided along a north-south axis, with the northern areas extending into the Sahara and Sahel, and the southern region, where most of the country's economic activity is concentrated. Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy, accounting for 50% of the country’s gross domestic product and employing a substantial portion of the country’s workforce. Despite this heavy reliance on agriculture, only 14% of the country’s land area is considered suitable for agriculture, making sustainable land management a major concern.