Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Russian Federation's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Russian Federation's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

The Russian Federation is a country in Eurasia, located between latitudes 41° and 82°N, and longitudes 19°E and 169°W. Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering one-eighth of the Earth’s inhabited land area or 17,125,200 km2. Russia’s population is estimated at over 144 million (2020) people, with 74.4% living in urban areas. The country’s economy is driven by its services, industry, and agriculture sectors. Russia is a major emitter of greenhouse gases (contributing to 4.5% of GHG emissions), and a leading global supplier of fossil fuels. Russia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change from extreme events such as increase in the frequency and duration of droughts, extreme precipitation, floods, forest fire, degradation of permafrost in the northern region heat-waves, flash floods, coastal flooding, and increased erosion.