Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Syrian Arab Republic's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Syrian Arab Republic's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is located in Western Asia. Syria’s economy largely depends on industry and oil production. Water resources are limited and not evenly distributed. Thus, water shortages are common due to heavy use for irrigation agriculture (about 88% of all freshwater). In spite of availability of water from several basins including the Yarmouk and Orontes, Syria has an annual water deficit currently estimated at about 3 billion cubic meters (about 20% of all water needs). Syria faces several economic constraints, including water scarcity, declining oil production, population growth, rising budget deficits and high unemployment. Syria’s population is approximately 17.5 million (2020). Increased environmental stress due to excessive water use and pollution, deforestation, overgrazing and soil erosion are likely to negatively impact on the country’s agricultural production, and the effects of climate change will only exacerbate these issues.