Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Colombia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Colombia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Colombia, located in the northwest corner of South America, is a topographically diverse country traversed by the Andes Mountains with lowland plains in the east. It has a 3,208 kilometers (km) coastline along both the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Caribbean Sea to the north and the northern edges of the Amazon basin’s tropical rainforests are located in the southeast. The country is considered the 25th largest nation in the world, covering 1,138,910 km2 of land. The Andes, represented by the Cordillera Occidental, reaches up to 15,000 ft in elevation, and the Cordillera Central hosts several snow-covered volcanos including the Nevado del Ruiz and Nevado de Santa Isabel, that extend to over 17,000 ft in elevation. Between these mountains, which traverse the country, lies the Magdalena River valley, home to Colombia’s important oil reserves. Colombia is a populous country, with an estimated 50.8 million people in 2020 with projections suggesting the country’s population could reach nearly 56 million people by 2050. Most of the country’s population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast. The expansive eastern and southern Llanos and tropical forests are home to less than 10% of the country’s population. An estimated 81.4% of the country’s population live in urban areas and this is projected to increase to 88.8% by 2050. The Colombian territory is highly vulnerable to extreme events, particularly flooding from “La Niña” phenomena. Vulnerability hotspots include the Caribbean and the Andean regions, with key sectors including housing, transport, energy, agriculture and health.