Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Nicaragua's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Nicaragua's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


The Republic of Nicaragua is a country located in the Central American isthmus, between the equatorial line and the Tropic of Cancer, approximately between 11° and 15° North latitude and 83°- 88° West longitude. Nicaragua shares borders with Honduras to the north, Costa Rica to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the east. It has an area of 130,370 km2, of which 120,293 km2 are solid ground, 471 km2 are insular territory, 10,407 km2 are lakes and lagoons, and 148 km2 are mountainous peaks of more than 1,000 m. The country has a population of approximately 6.6 million (2020) people, of which 57% live in urban areas and 43% in rural areas. Nicaragua remains one of Latin America’s least developed countries, where access to basic services is a daily challenge. Nicaragua is located in one of the regions most threatened by climate variability and climate change. It is exposed to a number of events linked to natural climate variability, such as El Niño and La Niña phenomenon, monsoon-related events in the Pacific, tropical waves and hurricanes, among others. These generate serious threats, including droughts, floods, mudslides, water scarcity, and the destruction of crops, forests and homes.