Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Mexico's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Mexico's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Mexico is located in North America and covers a total surface area of 1,964,375 km2. The country shares a northern border with the United States and its southern border with Guatemala and Belize, its western coast is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico on its eastern coastline. Mexico has a highly diverse topography and climate conditions. The country has designated 12% of its territory as protected areas and has over 7,000 km2 of mangrove forests. In addition, Mexico has the 12th largest forest area worldwide. It is known as a "mega-diverse" country, home to 60 - 70% of all known biological diversity on earth; representing 12% of the world total.  

Mexico is an upper middle-income country and the second-largest economy in Latin America. Mexico has a total population of 130 million people (2020) and an annual population growth rate at 1.1%. Mexico’s growth projections are vulnerable to external shocks such as a decline in commodity prices or changes in international financial conditions. Despite continued economic growth, Mexico still faces challenges to reduce poverty and protect its natural and cultural resources; inequality remains high and poverty is concentrated among rural, indigenous populations, whose food security depends upon climate conditions and/ or natural disasters.

Mexico's geographic characteristics make it a highly vulnerable country to the adverse impacts of climate change. Its location between two oceans, as well as its latitude and topography significantly increase Mexico’s exposure to extreme hydro meteorological events. The government committed to reducing emission and supporting the necessary mitigation and adaptation activities in order to reduce its vulnerability and protect the livelihoods of its population. Adaptation focus is on key sectors: energy, agriculture, waster, land-use and forestry, and coastal zones.