Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Niger.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Niger's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Niger's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

The Republic of Niger is situated in West Africa between longitudes 0° and 16° East and latitudes 11° and 24° North, with parts of its 1,267,000 km2 located within the Sahel and Sahara causing three-quarters of its terrain to be deserts. The majority of its 24 million (2020) inhabitants are concentrated in the southern part of the country, where the climate is more favorable for agricultural and pastoral activities. Niger is bordered by Algeria and Libya to the north, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, while Burkina Faso and Mali are its western neighbors. The country has been prone to political instability and security crisis in recent years in the areas bordering Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Mali, where armed groups carry out attacks against the security forces and civilians. Niger is also prone to natural disasters such as droughts, floods, and locust infestations, all of which contribute to chronic food insecurity. Classified as extremely low income, 42.9% (2020) of the population lives in extreme poverty, affecting more than 10 million people.

Priority adaptation measures outlined in Niger's Nationally Determined Contribution (2016) focuses on the agriculture, livestock, water resources, transport, and public health sectors with emphasis on transfer of technologies; increased capacity in the area of research; and systematic observations and actions in the area of awareness building, education and training, and information.