Country

Bahrain

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Bahrain.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Bahrain's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Bahrain's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF
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The Kingdom of Bahrain is an archipelago of more than 36 islands, shoals, and small islets located in the west central part of the Arabian Gulf. The main island of Bahrain accounts for about 85% of the total area and is where Manama, the capital city is located. Oil and natural gas play a dominant role in Bahrain’s economy. Despite the Government’s efforts to diversify the economy, oil still comprises 85% of Bahraini revenues. In the past years, lower oil prices have resulted in budget deficits.

A desert environment dominates Bahrain’s terrestrial landscape, except for a narrow fertile strip that is found along the northern and northwestern coastlines. The desert is home to many types of insects, reptiles, birds and wild mammals. The country's marine environment is characterized high rates of evaporation during most of the year and a shortage of freshwater input. The most vital marine habitats are mangrove and seagrass beds in the intertidal regions and coral reefs in the sub-tidal regions. Bahrain is a highly water stressed country from a freshwater resource availability perspective. There are only 3 cubic meters (m3 ) of renewable groundwater per capita, compared to a world average of 6,000 m3 per capita. Rising population combined with high consumption patterns have led to the gradual depletion of groundwater sources. The most pressing environmental concerns include desertification resulting from the degradation of arable land, droughts, and dust storms; coastal degradation resulting from oil spills and lack of freshwater resources.