Climate Change Overview

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Ethiopia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Ethiopia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Ethiopia is a land locked country in North East Africa, located between approximately E 32°58’00” to E 48°00’00” and 3°25’00” N to 14°55’00” N. Ethiopia has a land mass of 1,104,300 km2 and shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. The country has a diverse climate and landscape, ranging from equatorial rainforest with high rainfall and humidity in the south and southwest, to the Afro-Alpine on the summits of the Simien and Bale Mountains, to desert-like conditions in the north-east, east and south-east lowlands. Overall, Ethiopia is considered largely arid, but exhibits a high variability of precipitation Ethiopia’s climate is generally divided into three zones: 1) the alpine vegetated cool zones (Dega) with areas over 2,600 meters above sea level, where temperatures range from near freezing to 16°C; 2) the temperate Woina Dega zones, where much of the country’s population is concentrated, in areas between 1,500 and 2,500 meters above sea level where temperatures range between 16°C and 30°C; and 3) the hot Qola zone, which encompasses both tropical and arid regions and has temperatures ranging from 27°C to 50°C. Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa and has a population over 112 million people (2019), with an annual population growth rate of 2.6% (2019). Its population is projected to reach 139.6 million by 2030 and 190.8 million by 2050.

Climate change adaptation and resilience priorities are focused on increased adaptation for key sectors including Agriculture (livestock and soil), Forestry, Transport, Electric Power, Industry (including mining) and Buildings (including Waste and Green Cities).