Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Latvia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Latvia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Latvia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Latvia is situated on the edge of the Eastern European Plain near the Baltic Sea between 55°40' and 58°05' N latitude and between 20°58' and 28°14' E longitude. Latvia borders with Estonia in the north, with Lithuania in the south, with Belarus in the southeast and with Russia in the east. Latvia’s territory covers an area of 64573 km2 in total, of which 54.1% is covered by forests, 29.2% is agricultural land and about 4% are settlements. Reforms implemented in Latvia and integration in the EU have left a positive impact on the economic development of the country. In 2015 the main exported goods were agricultural products and foodstuffs (18.7%), machinery, electrical equipment and appliances, (18.6%), and wood and its products (16.7%). Population of Latvia was 1.95 million in 2017, of which 68.3% live in urban areas and 31.7% live in rural areas.

Latvia’s climate is cold and temperate. It is influenced by the country’s location in the northwest of the Eurasian continent, distance from Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga and relief of the territory of the territory. Since the beginning of the 20th century, records of average air temperature in Latvia have a long-term trend of warming. The year 2015 was the warmest year in 93 years. Latvia submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as an EU Member State in 2015 and its Seventh National Communication in 2017.