Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Latvia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Latvia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Latvia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Latvia is situated on the edge of the Eastern European Plain near the Baltic Sea between 55°40' and 58°05' Northern latitude and between 20°58' and 28°14' Eastern longitude. The territory covers an area of 64573 km2 in total. Its length in the North – South direction is 210 km, and the width in the West – East direction – 450 km. Latvia is a typical lowland country and its terrain is characterized by flat, low areas and hilly elevations. There are more than 3,000 lakes and 12,000 rivers in Latvia. Total forest area (including afforested lands) in 2015 was 32,983.6 km2, cropland 17,161.1 km2 and grassland 7,380.7 km2 , wetland 4,451.8 km2, settlements 2,541.4 km2. Population of Latvia was 1.8 million as of 2020. 

As the economy of Latvia is small and open there is significant dependence on the trends of global economy. Foreign trade is important, with exports of goods and services accounting for about 45% of the GDP. The services sector had the dominating share in Latvia value added total followed by manufacturing and construction, while the agriculture sector and other industries had a minor role. 

Climate change in Latvia affects both its natural capital (species, habitats, ecosystems) as well as the health, welfare and safety and economic activities of the population.